The popularity of crypto and blockchain is growing exponentially and then is the variety of users and transactions.Whereas it is easy to check however the revolutionary blockchain is,quantifiability – a system’s capability to grow whereas accommodating increasing demand – has continuously been a challenge.Public blockchain networks that square measure extremely suburbanized and secure usually struggle to realize high output.

This is usually delineated because of the Blockchain Trilemma,which states that it’s nearly not possible for a suburbanized system to at the same time reach equally high levels of decentralization, security, and quantifiability. Realistically, blockchain networks will solely have 2 out of 3 factors.

Fortunately, however, thousands of enthusiasts and consultants square measure acting on scaling solutions.A number of these solutions square measure designed to tweak the design of the most blockchain (Layer 1), whereas others target Layer two protocols that operate high on the underlying network.


  1. What is a blockchain Layer one vs Layer 2?
  2. Why is blockchain quantifiability important?
  3. Current Layer one problems!
  4. How do Layer 1 scaling solutions works?
  5. How do Layer 2 scaling solutions works?
    1. Rollups
    2. Sidechains
    3. State channels
    4. Nested blockchains
  6. Limitations of Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions
  7. What’s next after Layer 1 and Layer 2?
  8. Closing thoughts

What is a blockchain Layer one vs Layer 2?

The term Layer one refers to the bottom level of a blockchain design. It’s the most structured of blockchain network.Bitcoin, Ethereum, and BNB Chain are samples of Layer one blockchains. Layer two refers to networks designed on the prime of different blockchains.Therefore if Bitcoin could be a Layer one, the Lightning Network that runs on prime of its associate example of a Layer two.

Blockchain network quantifiability enhancements are often categorized into Layer one and Layer two solutions.A Layer one resolution can amend the foundations and mechanisms of the first blockchain directly.A Layer two resolution can use an associate external, parallel network to facilitate transactions aloof from the main chain.

Why is blockchain quantifiability important?

Imagine a brand new route being designed between a significant town and its invasive community.Because the quantity of traffic passing through the route will increase and congestion becomes common – particularly throughout rush hours – the typical time to induce from A to B will increase considerably.No wonder,only if road infrastructure has its restricted capability and therefore the demand is ever-growing.

Now, what will the authorities do to assist a lot of commuters to travel via this route faster?

One resolution would be to boost the route itself, adding additional lanes to every facet of the road.This, however, isn’t continuously sensible because it is a fashionable resolution that may cause respectable hassle to those already exploiting the route.Another is to induce invention and think about varied approaches not related to creating changes to the core infrastructure,like building further service roads or maybe launching a lightweight rail line on the route.

In the world of blockchain technology, the first route would be Layer one (the main network), whereas the extra service roads would be Layer two solutions (secondary network to boost the capacity).

Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Polkadot are all thought-about Layer one blockchains.They’re the base-layer blockchains that method and record transactions for his or her various ecosystems, that includes a native cryptocurrency – usually won’t to pay fees and supply broader utility. The plane figure is one example of a Layer two scaling resolution for Ethereum.The plane figure network often commits checkpoints to the Ethereum mainnet to update its standing.

The turnout capability could be a very important part of a blockchain. It’s a life of speed and potency that shows what percentage of transactions are often processed and recorded at intervals a selected timeframe.Because the range of users will increase and therefore the range of synchronous transactions goes up, a Layer one blockchain will become slow and high-ticket to use. This is often very true of Layer one blockchains that use a symbol of labor mechanism as critical Proof of Stake.

Current Layer one problems!

Bitcoin and Ethereum are sensible samples of Layer one networks with scaling problems.Each secures the network through a distributed agreement model.This suggests that every transaction is verified by multiple nodes before being valid. The alleged mining nodes all contend to resolve a posh process puzzle, and therefore the flourishing miners are rewarded within the network’s native cryptocurrency.

In different words, all transactions need the freelance verification of many nodes before obtaining confirmation.This is often associated economical manner of work and recording correct,verified information to the blockchain while mitigating the chance of attack by dangerous actors.However, once you’ve got a network as in style as Ethereum or Bitcoin, the turnout demand becomes an associate ever-increasing issue.In times of network congestion, users can face slower confirmation times and better dealing fees.

How do Layer 1 scaling solutions works?

Their area unit many choices accessible to Layer one blockchains that may increase outturn and overall network capability.Within the case of blockchains victimization Proof of labor, a transition to Proof of Stake can be AN choice to increase transactions per second (TPS) whereas reducing process fees. Still, their area unit mixed views within the crypto community relating to the advantages and long-run implications of Proof of Stake.

Scaling solutions on Layer one networks area units are usually introduced by the project’s development team.Betting on the answer, the community can have to be compelled to laborious fork or soft fork the network.Some little changes area unit backward compatible, like Bitcoin’s SegWit update.

Larger changes, like increasing the Bitcoin’s block size to 8MB, need a tough fork. This creates 2 versions of the blockchain, one with the update and one while not. another choice to extend a network’s outturn is sharding.This splits a blockchain’s operations across multiple smaller sections that may method information at the same time instead of consecutive.

How do Layer 2 scaling solutions works?

As mentioned, Layer two solutions believe secondary networks that job in parallel or freelance of the most chain.


Zero-knowledge rollups (the commonest kind) bundle off-chain Layer two dealings and submit them jointly transaction on the most chain.These systems use validity proofs to see the integrity of transactions.Assets square measure remained the first chain with a bridging sensible contract, and therefore the sensible contract confirms the rollup is functioning as meant.This provides the protection of the first network with the advantages of a less resource-intensive rollup.


Sidechains square measure freelance blockchain networks with their own sets of validators. this suggests the bridging sensible contract on most chains doesn’t verify the validity of the sidechain network.Therefore, you would like to trust the sidechain is working properly as it’s able to manage assets on the first chain.

State channels

A state channel may be a two-way communication atmosphere between the transacting parties.The parties seal off a district of the underlying blockchain associated and connect it to an off-chain dealing channel.This is often typically done via a pre-agreed sensible contract or a multi-signature.The parties then execute a dealing or a batch of transactions off-chain, while not now submitting dealing knowledge to the underlying distributed ledger (i.e., the most chain).Once all transactions within the set square measure are complete, the ultimate “state” of the channel is broadcasted to the blockchain for validation.This mechanism permits to boost in dealing speed and will increase the general capability of the network.Solutions just like the Bitcoin Lightning Network and Ethereum’s Raiden operate supported state channels.

Nested blockchains

This answer depends on a collection of secondary chains that sit on high of the most, “parent” blockchains. Nested blockchains operate in step with the foundations and parameters set by the parent chain. Most chain doesn’t participate in corporal punishment transactions and its role is proscribed to dispute resolution once necessary.The everyday work is delegated to “child” chains that come to the processed transactions to the most chain upon completion off the most chain. OmiseGO’s Plasma project is an associate instance of a Layer two nested blockchain answer.

Limitations of Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions

Both Layer one and Layer two solutions have distinctive benefits and downsides.Operating with Layer one will give the foremost effective answer for large-scale protocol enhancements.However, this conjointly means validators should be convinced to simply accept changes through a tough fork.

One potential example wherever validators might not need to try and do this is often dynamic from Proof of labor to Proof of Stake.Miners can lose financial gain by this switch to an additional economical system, disincentivizing them from up measurability.

Layer two provides a way faster thanks to improving measurability. However, looking at the strategy used, you’ll be able to lose tons of the protection of the initial blockchain.Users trust networks like Ethereum and Bitcoin for their resilience and log of security.By taking aspects off Layer one,you regularly have to be compelled to think about the Layer two team and network for potency and security.

What’s next after Layer 1 and Layer 2?

One key question is whether or not we’ll even like Layer two solutions as Layer 1s become a lot of ascendible. Existing blockchains see enhancements, and new network area units created with sensible measurability already.However, it’ll take a protracted time for major systems to boost their measurability, and it’s not secure.The foremost seemingly possibility is for Layer 1s to specialize in security, and permit Layer two networks to tailor their services to specific use cases.

In the close to future, there’s a decent likelihood that giant chains like Ethereum can still dominate because of their giant user and developer community.However, its large, localized validator set and trusty name create a solid base for targeted Layer two solutions.

Closing thoughts

Since crypto began, the seek for improved quantifiability has created a two-pronged approach with Layer one enhancements and Layer a pair of solutions.If you’ve got a various crypto portfolio, there’s a decent likelihood you have already got exposure to each Layer one and Layer a pair of networks.Now, you perceive the variations between the 2 similarly because of the totally different approaches to scaling that they provide.